La visión One Health clave para preservar la salud pública


Zoonoses are diseases that are transmitted between animals and humans either directly, through food or contact with vectors such as mosquitoes, sandflies, or ticks, or through the environment. This is an increasingly recurring global public health problem. Overpopulation, increased mobility, ecosystem degradation and species trade are some of the reasons for the increase.

Approximately 200 zoonotic diseases have been described. Throughout history, some of the known zoonoses are rabies, black death, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), influenza A or avian influenza, SARS-CoV-2 and monkeypox virus.

Considering that 60% of pathogens that cause human disease come from domestic or wild animals, that 75% of emerging human pathogens are of animal origin, and that 80% of pathogens at risk of use in bioterrorism are of animal origin, the global commitment to the present and future health of humans, animals and the environment is based on a One Health vision or concept. Human health is directly linked to the health of animals and the environment in which we live, so by caring for the health of animals and the environment, we protect our own health.

The One Health movement is a global strategy that aims to increase interdisciplinary collaboration in the health care of people, animals and the environment, and to develop and implement programs, policies and laws to improve public health. Only by working together, human and veterinary health professionals can safeguard public health.

Keys to a One Health vision:

  • True recognition of health professionals.
  • Recognition of veterinarians as health professionals.
  • Creation of multidisciplinary teams of clinical professionals specializing in the health of livestock, wildlife, and humans.
  • Protect animal health as a primary asset.
  • Create stronger environmental protection policies with increased penalties for crimes that cause serious damage to ecosystems.
  • Promote research into alternative methods of animal experimentation.
  • Promote empathy for animals and the planet.


National Multiple Sclerosis Day

On December 18, National Multiple Sclerosis Day is celebrated with the sole intention of raising awareness of the pathology and disseminating the characteristics of the illness as well as the problems faced by those affected. This pathology affects more women than men, and in Spain alone there are more than 47 thousand people affected, more than 60 thousand in Europe and approximately 2.5 million throughout the world. Every year, 1,800 new cases of MS are diagnosed in Spain, and it is the second cause of disability among the young, after traffic accidents.

MS is a chronic autoimmune, inflammatory, demyelinating, neurodegenerative and progressive disease affecting the white matter of the brain and spinal cord. The first symptoms usually appear between the ages of 20 and 40 years and is more common in women. The usual early onset symptoms are fatigue, vision problems, tingling, numbness, dizziness and lightheadedness, muscle weakness, spasms, and problems with balance and coordination.

Also called the disease of a thousand faces, because of the many effects and symptoms it presents, differing from one person to another. Most of the manifestations of the disease are 'invisible', but they have an impact on the daily life of those who suffer from it. It causes great disability with motor, cognitive and visual acuity problems, accompanied by anxiety and depression.

MS mainly produces myelin lesions, which alters the transmission of nerve impulses.

The disease appears suddenly, however in some cases it can be progressive. The treatment will depend on how fast the disease has developed, and therefore early detection and prompt treatment is the key.

Early symptoms include vision loss, sensory loss in the extremities, tingling, altered balance, loss of strength or motor difficulties, which in some cases may improve with the passing of days. However, early treatment by a physician is essential to avoid the appearance of sequelae from the initial phase of the disease.

There is no cure for Multiple Sclerosis, however there are palliative and symptomatic treatments that can considerably change the course of the disease and improve the quality of life, reducing the symptoms.

Bibliographic Management Optimization

Tips and tools to improve bibliographic management in the healthcare environment

The healthcare industry is one that continues to grow and thrive thanks to the scientific evidence behind all of its products and technological advances. However, all this scientific evidence can sometimes be so overwhelming that it can be difficult to work with.

When working with large quantities of scientific articles, situations can arise where it is difficult to maintain a properly organized and updated library where all references have a homogeneous format.

To solve this type of situation, there are several tools or bibliographic managers that can be very useful in healthcare companies.

Within the bibliographic managers we find a wide list of software with different characteristics, interfaces, prices, etc.

Thanks to these tools we can have libraries of articles with a series of characteristics that will facilitate the daily work of our teams with all the scientific evidence that they have to deal with on a daily basis.

  • Shared libraries: These libraries can be shared with other users who can access them to consult and download articles at any time and from any device with Internet access.

The ability to share these libraries allows work to be centralized, with a team responsible for maintaining the libraries and granting access to other users as appropriate.

This eliminates duplication of effort in keeping libraries organized and up to date.

  • Updated: By incorporating new articles as they are published, we can ensure that our teams always have the latest scientific evidence available.
  • Categorized: Elements can be added to all library materials to make it easier for users to find information.

You can use everything from keywords to tags and even scoring systems for materials to categorize them according to different criteria (level of scientific evidence, relevance of the material to the company's strategy, etc.).

  • Homogeneous: Bibliographic managers allow us to select materials and apply the same format to them en bloc when referencing them. In this way, we ensure that all the generated materials have references in the appropriate format.

Bibliographic managers are easy to use software, but when working with hundreds and thousands of articles and references, it is necessary to know how to use them well to get the most out of them.

At Global Healthcare, we have extensive experience in using this type of tool in both academic and industrial environments for large multinational companies in the sector. If you believe that bibliographic management in your environment could be more efficient, do not hesitate to contact us to evaluate the possibilities for improvement.

La obesidad: un problema de salud mundial

Obesity: a global pandemic

There are more than one billion obese people worldwide, and the number is growing. The WHO estimates that by 2025, approximately 167 million people will be less healthy because they are overweight or obese. At the beginning of 2017, Spain was the country with the highest rate of childhood obesity in the world, and currently one in three children is overweight, positioning us as the fourth country in Europe with the highest rate of childhood obesity.

Obesity is a disease that affects most of the body's systems. It affects the heart, liver, kidneys, joints, and reproductive system. It leads to a wide range of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and stroke, various forms of cancer and mental health problems. People with obesity are also three times more likely to be hospitalized for COVID-19.

In addition, the WHO considers obesity to be a major risk factor for nine types of cancer: breast, uterus, colon, kidney, gallbladder, pancreas, rectum, esophagus, and ovary. Obesity is also the third preventable factor that most reduces quality of life. According to the WHO, obesity and overweight reduce a person's life expectancy by 5 to 20 years.

La obesidad es una enfermedad prevenible que afecta a la mayoría de los sistemas del cuerpo

The key to preventing obesity is early intervention, ideally during pregnancy. The foundation of the solution is education in healthy lifestyles from childhood and continuing into adulthood. It is important that people learn and internalize the importance of eliminating or limiting saturated fats and sugars, and increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables, as well as legumes, whole grains, and nuts. Add to this regular physical activity. If, despite a healthy diet and active lifestyle, a person suffers from obesity, it is important to look for alternative solutions and/or treatments that will help put an end to this problem.

At the same time, countries need to work together to create a better food environment by restricting the marketing of foods and beverages high in fat, sugar, and salt, taxing sugary drinks and increasing access to healthy and affordable foods.

Here are some tips on how to prevent overweight and obesity:


Microbiota in the Health Spotlight

The gut microbiome contains tens of trillions of microorganisms and more than 1,000 known species of bacteria that have been shown to play an important role in modulating the immune system and disease risk. The gut microbiome is the set of microorganisms, their genes, and metabolites in an ecological niche, while the gut microbiota refers to the microbial communities in that niche.

The gut microbiota is believed to play a critical role in human health and disease prevention through mechanisms such as the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which are important for maintaining intestinal balance and optimal immune function. As a result, the study of these microorganisms has increased and their importance in human health and disease processes is becoming more apparent. Intestinal microorganisms play an essential role in the development and maintenance of an effective and healthy immune system, as the majority of antibody production in the adult human body takes place locally in the intestinal mucosa. Their position is crucial for the initial recognition of foreign molecules, creating a barrier effect of the microbiota that prevents the invasion of pathogens and inhibits the growth of their competitors.


Microbiota and disease

Dysbiosis refers to an imbalance of the normal gut microbiota, which can be caused by factors such as:

  • Poor stress management
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Toxic habits (smoking, alcohol consumption)
  • Sweeteners
  • Consumption of soft drinks
  • Digestive or immune system disorders
  • Antibiotic treatments
  • Aging
  • Intestinal infections
  • Poor eating habits
  • Genetic predisposition
  • Use of antibiotics and antacids


Several pathologies are associated with an abnormal composition of the intestinal microbiota:

  • Diarrhea associated with Clostridium difficile
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, etc.
  • Functional gastrointestinal disorders: Irritable Bowel Syndrome.
  • Colorectal cancer
  • Obesity
  • Type 2 diabetes


Dietary diversity and lifestyle are probably the most important factors influencing the composition of the human gut microbiota. Microbes in the gut contribute to host health through the biosynthesis of essential vitamins and amino acids, which are an important source of energy for intestinal epithelial cells and can therefore strengthen the mucosal barrier.

Promoting microorganisms in the human environment can have beneficial effects on the microbiota. Generating and maintaining the diversity of the gut microbiota through the benefits of prebiotics and probiotics is a new clinical target for health promotion and disease prevention.

World Stroke Day

October 29th is World Stroke Day, which aims to raise awareness of this disease and its consequences, and to disseminate preventive measures to reduce the risk of stroke. Some organizations, such as the Spanish Stroke Federation, the Asociación Freno al Ictus and the Spanish Society of Neurology, celebrate this day with the aim of informing the population about the importance of post-stroke rehabilitation, a healthy lifestyle and the early detection of this disease.

Stroke is a sudden disturbance in the blood circulation of the brain, which can be caused by an obstruction (85% of cases) or by a hemorrhage (15%), and is the first cause of mortality in Spanish women and the second in men, as well as the first cause of acquired disability in adults and the second cause of dementia, according to the Cerebrovascular Disease Study Group of the Spanish Neurological Society (GEECV-SEN).

In figures, according to the Spanish Stroke Federation, 40,000 Spaniards die from this cause each year. Around 120,000 new cases are detected each year in our country, and it is estimated that a stroke occurs every six minutes. Around 30% of people who suffer a stroke die and around 40% are left with serious disabilities.

A stroke is always a health emergency that requires urgent attention in the first 3-6 hours, so it is recommended to call the emergency services to activate the stroke code and not to take the patient to the hospital on your own. Immediate recognition and early treatment of a stroke is crucial for the patient's development, as it has been shown that patients treated from the first moment recover almost completely or with very few sequelae. In addition, for every 15 minutes that the first intervention is brought forward, the risk of disability is reduced by 4% and the risk of mortality is reduced by 4%.

Over the past 20 years, mortality and disability from stroke have decreased due to improved early detection and control of risk factors. However, the incidence of stroke continues to increase.

Recognizing the symptoms of a stroke is therefore essential, as the first few hours are crucial for a good prognosis. Some of the most important warning signs are:

  • Sudden loss of strength or vision (usually on one side of the body).
  • Deviation of the corner of the mouth
  • Speech or language difficulties
  • Loss of sensation
  • Sudden loss of stability or balance
  • Severe, sudden headaches

Risk factors for this disease depend on vascular risk, age, gender, and family history. We can prevent it by monitoring high blood pressure, heart disease, atrial fibrillation, diabetes, obesity, and smoking. It is therefore advisable to lead a healthy life:

  • Eat fruits and vegetables (healthy and balanced diet).
  • Avoid alcohol and tobacco consumption
  • Exercise regularly
  • Control sugar levels
  • Control cholesterol levels
  • Control blood pressure

REMEMBER: A stroke is a medical emergency.

If you suspect it, do not waste time, as it is equivalent to the loss of brain tissue: contact the emergency services immediately by calling 112.

World Heart Day

World Heart Day is celebrated on September 29th to raise awareness of cardiovascular disease, its prevention, control and treatment, and the importance of leading a healthy life.

There are many diseases or conditions of the heart, although the most common are:

  • Heart attack or myocardial infarction: It is characterized by the narrowing of the blood vessels responsible for carrying blood to the heart.
  • Cerebrovascular disease: caused by intracerebral hemorrhage or by a blood clot in the brain.
  • Hypertension: high blood pressure, one of the greatest risks for heart attack.
  • Angina pectoris: a type of chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart.
  • Arrhythmia: a disorder of the heart rhythm.
  • Heart failure: occurs when the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.

By taking care of our health with healthy habits, we can prevent cardiovascular disease from becoming the leading cause of death in the world, with 17.9 million premature deaths per year due to cardiovascular disease. If we continue with our current lifestyles, it is estimated that this number will reach 23 million deaths per year by 2030. Small changes in our daily lives, such as eating and drinking healthier, exercising more and quitting smoking, could reduce these numbers, according to the Spanish Heart Foundation.

World Meningitis Day

World Meningitis Day is celebrated on 24 April, a major global public health problem. Meningitis is a devastating disease with a high mortality rate and serious long-term sequelae that remains a major global public health problem.

Many microorganisms can cause meningitis, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. However, bacterial meningitis is of particular concern. About 1 in 10 people who get this type of meningitis die, and 1 in 5 develop serious complications.

serious complications. Safe and affordable vaccines are the most effective way to provide lasting protection.

World Meningitis Day is celebrated every year on 24 April to draw attention to the seriousness of meningitis, a disease that affects more than one million people worldwide each year. .

Here is an infographic with more information about meningitis.

World Hepatitis Day

World Hepatitis Day promotes awareness and understanding of the viral disease as a global public health problem.

World Viral Hepatitis Day has been celebrated by the World Health Organization (WHO) every July 28 since 2008.

The purpose of this celebration is to promote awareness and understanding of viral hepatitis as a global public health problem and to strengthen action to prevent and control the disease worldwide. By celebrating this day, WHO aims to achieve several objectives on a global scale:

  • To reduce the likelihood of new hepatitis A, B, C, or E infections by 90%.
  • To prevent 65% of the deaths caused by this disease each year.

What is viral hepatitis?

Viral hepatitis is an infection that causes acute inflammation of the liver. In most cases, the inflammation of the liver starts suddenly and lasts only a few weeks.

There are 4 different types of hepatitis viruses: A, B, C, and E.

Hepatitis A is contracted from food or water contaminated with the virus. The main route of transmission is fecal-oral, especially in countries with poor hygiene and contaminated water.

Hepatitis B, through contact with blood and/or body fluids, unprotected sexual intercourse, sharing of syringes and personal hygiene items (toothbrushes, razors), acupuncture, tattooing and/or body piercing in poor sanitary conditions, and from mother to child during childbirth and breastfeeding.

Hepatitis C is also spread by contact with the blood of a person infected with the virus.

Together, hepatitis B and C are the leading cause of death, with 1.4 million deaths annually.

In the absence of vaccination, hepatitis B is the most commonly diagnosed form of hepatitis, which in most cases is an acute infection that resolves completely, although it can sometimes become chronic. Hepatitis C is the most chronic and most commonly progresses to cirrhosis.

Most cases of hepatitis E are zoonotic and mainly associated with pigs. The infection is transmitted to humans by eating undercooked contaminated meat and can cause acute hepatitis.

In Spain, hepatitis is a Notifiable Disease (NDD), which means that it must be reported to the System of Notifiable Diseases, the basic system of the Epidemiological Surveillance Network.

In Spain, almost one and a half million people are carriers of the hepatitis B or C virus, although only 10% know it.

How to begin a critical reading of a scientific article

Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is a systematic process of searching for, evaluating, and using the results of biomedical research as an essential basis for decision making in clinical practice through a methodology of information analysis, primarily from clinical trials, but not just any clinical trial, but those conducted in a prospective, controlled, and randomized manner.

Critical reading of a scientific article is included as one of the basic pillars of EBM, which consists of evaluating and interpreting the evidence provided by the scientific literature, systematically considering the results presented, their validity and their relevance to the work itself. Critical reading is a tool that will help us to eliminate in the shortest possible time the scientific articles of poor quality and to accept only those with sufficient scientific quality to help us in our decision making for patient care.

Reading articles that do not have sufficient potential and validity is time-consuming and distorts knowledge. These are the questions that every scientific article should answer for a preliminary evaluation of its quality and that you should ask yourself before starting to read the article in depth.